Macrophage CD31 Signaling in Dissecting Aortic Aneurysm
Andreata F, Syvannarath V, Clement M, Delbosc S, Guedj K, Fornasa G, Khallou-Laschet J, Morvan M, Even G, Procopio E, Gaston AT, Le Borgne M, Deschamps, L, Nicoletti A, Caligiuri G
+ Editorial from P Libby: Biologically-Based Therapies for Aortic Diseases • Link
Background The authors recently found that a CD31 agonist peptide reaches macrophages in injured aortas and exerts beneficial effects on apolipoprotein E-knockout (Apo E−/−) mice subjected to angiotensin (Ang) II infusion, a model of experimental acute aortic dissection and intramural hematoma (ADIM).
Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic potential of a drug-suitable agonist peptide in experimental ADIM.
Methods P8RI, a retro-inverso sequence of the best candidate identified by functional in vitro screening of a peptide library, passed an absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicology analysis. Apo E−/− mice (male, 28-week-old) implanted with Ang II-releasing pumps received P8RI (2.5 mg/kg/day) or vehicle from day 14 (n = 10/group). Leukocytes were analyzed by flow cytometry. Healing features of human and mouse dissected aortic segments were assessed by histology and immunofluorescence. The effect of CD31 on macrophages was evaluated using cells from CD31−/− mice and P8RI, in vitro.
Results Human and experimental ADIM were characterized by the infiltration of proinflammatory macrophages. The absence of CD31 enhanced the proinflammatory polarization of macrophages, whereas the CD31 agonist P8RI favored reparative macrophages both in vitro and in vivo. The administration of P8RI after the occurrence of ADIM prevented aneurysmal transformation by promoting the resolution of intramural hematoma and the production of collagen in dissected aortas in vivo, associated with enrichment of M2 macrophages at the site of injury.
Conclusions CD31 signaling promotes the switching of proinflammatory macrophages to the reparative phenotype and favors the healing of experimental dissected aortas. Treatment with a drug-suitable CD31 agonist may facilitate the clinical management of ADIM.