In vitro strategies to vascularize 3D physiologically relevant models
Dellaquila A, Le Bao C, Letourneur D, Simon-Yarza T
Vascularization of 3D models represents a major challenge of tissue engineering and a key prerequisite for their clinical and industrial application. The use of prevascularized models built from dedicated materials could solve some of the actual limitations, such as suboptimal integration of the bioconstructs within the host tissue, and would provide more in vivo-like perfusable tissue and organ-specific platforms. In the last decade, the fabrication of vascularized physiologically relevant 3D constructs has been attempted by numerous tissue engineering strategies, which are classified here in microfluidic technology, 3D coculture models, namely, spheroids and organoids, and biofabrication. In this review, the recent advancements in prevascularization techniques and the increasing use of natural and synthetic materials to build physiological organ-specific models are discussed. Current drawbacks of each technology, future perspectives, and translation of vascularized tissue constructs toward clinics, pharmaceutical field, and industry are also presented. By combining complementary strategies, these models are envisioned to be successfully used for regenerative medicine and drug development in a near future.